About CCDS

CCDS builds knowledge resources for social change. This website presents our research on digital inequality in India.
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Towards digital inclusion

The Centre for Communication and Development Studies (CCDS) has been researching digital inequality amongst socially- and economically-excluded urban communities in India since 2013.

The digitally-excluded are often those who are already disadvantaged along the traditional axes of inequality. They include the poor who do not have the economic capital to buy the infrastructure required to log on to the web; those who do not have the social capital — including education and ICT skills — to use computers and the internet; and those who do not have the freedom or autonomy to use digital technologies — such as women. Digital inequality ends up reinforcing existing social inequalities, and therefore constitutes a major social inclusion and public policy issue.

Our first study, Towards Internet Inclusion: Barriers to Internet Access for Economically- and Socially-Excluded Urban Communities, was published in 2015. The research was conducted among low-income and marginalised communities in Pune, the eighth-largest city in India, and a major industrial and IT hub. The study offers a reality check on the digital ‘revolution’ that is being celebrated in India and points out that digital equality is not just about getting people connected to mobile devices and the internet. It is about ensuring that everyone has equal opportunity to access high-speed and affordability internet services, as well as the media/digital literacy to use the technology to the fullest.


Our study recommends the reframing of the digital divide debate: digital equality must be viewed as not just access to technology, but access + adoption, with a focus on the social contexts of technology.

In addition to the research, CCDS has built innovative campaign and learning material on internet literacy, and conducted trainings and workshops in low-income settlements, particularly for women. CCDS was also the research partner for a pilot project (implemented by a consortium of partners including the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation) providing free WiFi to an entire slum, as well as a computer literacy training centre within the settlement to help residents make full use of the WiFi access.

CCDS is presently researching the digital preparedness of children from low-income and marginalised urban communities. We are examining the awareness, exposure and access of children to ICTs, and the ICT training they receive in government and private schools. The study aims to find out whether children from marginalised backgrounds are being prepared to participate equally in a digital world, and to recommend measures to ensure that they are fully equipped to use digital technologies for education, livelihoods, social and democratic participation and lifelong learning.

CCDS’s research on digital inequality is supported by the Ford Foundation.

About CCDS

The Centre for Communication and Development Studies (CCDS) was set up in 2002 to create and promote open spaces for research, communication and dialogue on social justice, sustainable development, pluralism and transparent governance. CCDS works to build knowledge for social change, and to take information for social change out of the seminar rooms and to the people. CCDS’s major programmes have included:

www.infochangeindia.org, an award-winning open-access, multimedia resource base featuring thousands of pages of original content on development and social justice in India. Infochange content, built between 2001 and 2013 by a network of over 400 writers and analysts, has informed scores of advocacy movements, campaigns and policy-makers, and been linked, cited and reprinted worldwide.


Infochange Agenda, a print and online dossier that combined background, perspective and data with research and reportage on themes such as migration and displacement, malnutrition, gender and sexuality, urbanisation and urban poverty.

Open Space, a unique outreach process that encouraged citizens — particularly youth — to explore and engage with issues related to pluralism, human rights and sustainable/equitable development. Open Space collaborated with leading writers, filmmakers, artists, activists and academics to introduce young adults to these issues through creative processes such as cinema and literature, as well as through workshops and campaigns.


Programme Team

Hutokshi Doctor

Director, CCDS

A communications professional with over three decades of experience, Hutokshi was a senior editor in mainstream media before electing to work in social change communications. She co-founded CCDS in 2002. She has conceptualised, launched and edited Infochangeindia.org and Infochange Agenda since inception, and conceptualised and guided CCDS’s civil society outreach programmes. She has worked on several communications projects for international and national development organisations and institutions.

Anjali Shenoi

Programme Coordinator

Anjali has a Masters degree in International Development from the University of Bath, United Kingdom. She has over eights years of experience in the areas of gender, sexuality, public health and human Rights. She has contributed to national level research projects on medical and reproductive technologies, surrogacy and ethics of clinical trials and has co-authored and published papers on these issues that have also been presented at national and international conferences. She has also actively been involved in multiple social justice campaigns and peoples’ movements on issues of public health, women’s rights, access to medicine and unethical trials and human rights. Most recently she has helped conceptualise and developed a curriculum for adolescent girls in rural areas, that integrates gender, health, sexuality and life-skills with sports for CREA.

Anjula Srivastava

Senior Research Associate

Anjula has a doctoral degree in Population Studies from the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai.  Prior to joining CCDS, she worked as a research specialist with Saksham, The Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Round-7, HIV/AIDS Counselling Programme at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. She has been a visiting scholar at the Centre for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity, Stanford University, USA. She has published in national and international journals, has co-edited a book,  Challenges of the Twenty First Century: A Transdisciplinary Perspective  (2011),  and a journal volume. Her areas of research include gender and labour market; social aspects of HIV/AIDS; and urban poverty and technology.

Vinita Datye

Research Associate

Vinita has a master’s in social work from the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. She began her career in adoption and later shifted to research. She has 15 years of experience in social and health research including public-private partnerships, HIV/AIDS, TB, H1N1, reproductive health and, more recently, in the evaluation of the quality of education in local body-run primary schools.

Tejal Mahashabde

Research Associate

Tejal has a masters degree in economics from the University of York, United Kingdom. She works as an independent research consultant with different organizations that work in the field of education and socio-economic intervention. She has earlier worked on a project based around reverse migration and returnee entrepreneurs, executed by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in association with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. She has also started an initiative called Learner Centric, which aims at generating digital resources for teachers, parents and any other stakeholder associated with school education.

Research Advisors

Dr. Arun P. Kulkarni

Statistical Advisor

Dr. Kulkarni, a PhD in Economics, is actively engaged in research and consultancy in Economics. He is a Consultant to World Bank, KfW, USAID, and Government of Maharashtra to name a few. He is the Director, Center of Quantitative Research, Pune (CQR) and the Chairman of Center of Studies in Social Sciences, Pune (CSSS). Prior to founding CQR, he was engaged in teaching and research at the Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, B.M. College of Commerce and University of Pune. He has also worked with Kirloskar Consultants where he was involved with research and consultancy in various subjects. His areas of specialization are Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Marketing and Prices, Statistics and Research Methodology. He has published two books and several research articles.

Ms. Sucheta B. Phadke

Subject Expert

Ms. Phadke, a learning strategist with 24 years of experience, has a Master’s degree in Communication Studies from University of Pune and is a Chevening scholar. Prior to consulting, she was Senior Vice-President at Global Learning Solutions division, Core Education and Technologies Ltd. and Head – Content with IL&FS Education. Learning strategy, training teams, solution design of online and blended programs for K12, teacher professional development, skill development and higher education with a focus on enhancing access, reach and scale is her passion. Sucheta stresses on the use of strategies which focus on real life needs and active participation of the learner.

Ms. Nagmani Rao

Research Advisor

Ms. Rao, a former faculty at the Karve Institute of Social Sciences, Pune, is a specialist in gender issues and social movements. She has almost 40 years of multifarious professional experience – community social work; research; mass mobilization and advocacy; activism on feminist issues and people centered alternatives; training of functionaries; editorial & publication work; working at community level on issues of secularism, gender & human rights, women’s health; teaching masters level students in social work; member in research advisory and ethics committees. She has several publications to her credit.

Technical and Admin Team

K C Dwarkanath

Finance and Admin Head

Retired manager of a nationalised bank, he has been in charge of finance and personnel at CCDS for over 10 years, building sound financial and organisational systems for the organisation.

Ashish Pawar

Manager (Accounts & Finance)

Ashish has a Master’s degree in Commerce with a specialisation in Banking and Finance. He began his career as an accountant with Bajaj Auto Finance Limited and has over 12 years of experience in financial accounting system. Having worked with the Savitribai Phule Pune University and Econet, Ashish is experienced in managing accounts of corporates, academic institution and Not-for-profit organisations.

Balram Khandare

Administrative and Technical Coordinator

Balram has 19 years of work experience at the National Centre for Advocacy Studies (NCAS), Pune, where he worked with administration and computer systems, and as a media associate. He has also worked in the IT sector on quality testing of mobile and web applications for more than 2 years.

Akash Shinde

Office Assistant

Akash has been working with CCDS since May 2018.